In 2017, it was announced Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) was found in 99% of deceased NFL players' brains that were donated to science, according to a study published in the medical journal JAMA.
A progressive degenerative disease, CTE is often associated with people who have suffered brain trauma, whether via repetitive head blows or via a single collision.
It is believed that individuals with CTE may show symptoms of dementia, such as memory loss, aggression, confusion and depression, which may appear years or many decades after the trauma.
Previously called dementia pugilistica (DP), i.e. "punch-drunk syndrome" it was believed the condition only impacted boxers who stayed in the ring too long. Today, however, CTE is seemingly more commonly found in professional athletes participating in the NFL, NHL and pro wrestling.
In 2016, former NFL quarterback Ken Stabler was found to have had CTE after post-mortem tests were done on his brain. What made that diagnosis so alarming is quarterbacks, unlike lineman and running backs, don't engage in frequent head-on collisions.
Chris Benoit, Junior Seau, Dave Duerson and Gary Goodridge
In 2007, famed wresler Chris Benoit killed his wife and son before taking his own life. After tests were conducted on Benoit's brain, results showed it was so severely damaged it resembled the brain of an 85-year-old Alzheimer's patient." He was reported to have had an advanced form of dementia with caused extreme depression and made him a threat to himself and others. Hence, it was concluded that repeated concussions can lead to dementia, which can contribute to severe behavioral problems.
Former football stars Junior Seau and Dave Duerson committed suicide with a self-inflicted gunshots in 2012 and 2011, respectively. And when the brains of both men were donated to science, studies showed Seau and Duerson suffered a neurodegenerative disorders. In Seau's case, it was determined he suffered from CTE. Moreover, a host of living former NFL players, including Dallas Cowboy great Tony Dorsett, are believed to have CTE.
Will CTE threaten boxing?
Perhaps time will tell. Sadly, based on his actions the past two years, former boxing champ Jermain Taylor might be a candidate. One could also make a case for Leon Spinks and the recently-retired James Toney. However, aside from them we haven't seen many active and former high-profile fighters develop seemingly unnatural debilitating punch-related illnesses while still in their 40s, 50s or 60s, or at any age.
Sure, boxers have suffered from dementia in their late 70s and 80s but it's a mainstream condition and its onset is usually diagnosed in that age range.
Muhammad Ali had Parkinson's Syndrome which is also a mainstream degenerative disease that impacts people who never played a contact sport a day in their life.
As someone who participated in football (ages 10-17) and boxing (ages 18-25), the shots to the head are very different per activity. In some ways, violent helmet-to-helmet contact hurt more yet was less likely to produce a knockout than a punch.
As a varsity linebacker, I'd always suffer nasty headaches due to head-to-head collisions during summer training camp but was never worried because they'd always seem to stop after the first two weeks.
Perhaps I'd developed a tolerance to the pain which may have given me a false sense of security?
Aside from a concussion I suffered at 15, I don't remember getting light-headed or terribly woozy in football but vividly recall the stinging migraines that would last several days during the opening weeks of training.
As a boxer, I don't remember having many severe headaches after sparring. The punches hurt and would make me dizzy sometimes, but I never had three-day migraines due to sparring.
In boxing, most of the head shots are taken in the face while in football, the hardest helmet-to-helmet shots are absorbed at the top and sides of the head, perhaps closer to the brain?
Also, the impact from a helmet-to-helmet collision covers more area of the head than that of a boxing glove which is much smaller (and softer) than a football helmet.
Perhaps those who participate in American football are, in fact, more likely to develop long term debilitating head injuries than boxers?
.... Time will tell.